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Citation guides -- Chicago

Video recordings

Footnotes / endnotes for Video recordings

PLEASE NOTE: The Manual effectively offers no guidance on citing video recordings in a references list under the author-date style.  The explanation presented below covers citations in the bibliography style exclusively.

Section 14.279 of the Manual list the elements of video citation:

  •  The name of the composer, writer, or director.  The Manual includes both examples where a movie director is the first part of a citation, and also where s/he is listed after the title of the movie (see below).
  • The name(s) of the interviewer(s) if the recording is of an interview
  •  If needed, the title of a song, TV show episode, scene chapter on a DVD, or the like, placed in "quotation marks."
  •  The title of the work as a whole -- album, movie, TV series, etc. -- put in italics.  For TV programs, list the season and episode number.  Opus numbers in musical works are abbreviated as op., and are not italicized.
  • The name of the conductor, performer, director, or other content creator.  If, for example, the conductor or performer is of note alongside the composer when citing a music recording, both can be listed.
  • The air date for a TV program
  •  The city where the publisher is based
  •  The name of the recording company or publisher
  •  An identifying number associated with the work, if there is any
  •  The copyright and/or production date.  For re-released materials, such as a digital remastering of an analog recording, you should include both the original release date as well as the copyright date of the re-release.  Use "n.d." of there is no date known.
  •  The medium of the recording -- CD, DVD, cassette, 33 1/3 RPM, MPEG file, etc.


Steven Soderbergh, Traffic (New York, NY: USA Home Entertainment, 2001), DVD.

Scene from a movie:
"Crop Duster Attack," North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000)
, DVD.

Episode of a TV show:
Michael Curtis and Gregory S. Malins, "The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy," Friends, season 3, episode 1, directed by Gail Mancuso, aired
     September 19, 1996 (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003)
, DVD.


Bibliography for Video recordings


Citations in a bibliography are formulated in a similar way to a footnote or endnote, but do have slight variations from the way a footnote or endnote is formulated.

Soderbergh, Steven.  Traffic. New York, NY: USA Home Entertainment, 2001.  DVD.

Scene from a movie:
"Crop Duster Attack."  North by Northwest.  Directed by Alfred Hitchcock.  Released 1959.  Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video,

Episode of a TV show:
Michael, and Gregory S. Malins.  "The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy."  Friends, season 3, episode 1.  Directed by
     Gail Mancuso.  Aired September 19, 1996.  Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003. 

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