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Citation guides -- Chicago

Online sound recordings

Footnotes / endnotes for online audio recordings

Section 14.221
 of the Manual lists the elements of an online audio citation such as a podcast:

  •  The name of the principle subject of the recording, such as a journalist or writer.
  • The name(s) of the interviewer(s) if the recording is of an interview
  •  The title of the podcast or podcast series put in italics.
  •  The medium of the recording -- in this case, podcast audio
  •  The date on which thre recording was broadcast or uploaded
  •  A Web address or Digital Object Identifier where the recording can be found on the Web


Darcy Steinke, interview with Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review, podcast audio,
 April 22, 2007,

Bibliography for an online audio recording

Citations in a bibliography are formulated in a similar way to a footnote or endnote, but do have slight variations from the way a footnote or endnote is formulated.

Steinke, Darcy.  Interview with Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner.  New York Times Book Review.  Podcast audio.  April 22,

  • In this case, the interview has no title, the way an article or book chapter does.  If the interview had a title, it would be included in parentheses in between Darcy Steinke's name (as interviewee) and Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner's names (as interviewers). 

Reference list for an online audio recording

Sections 14.274, 14.276, and 15.33 of the Manual offer information on citing an online sound recording, but their guidance is minimal.  The following example is taken from section 15.33, but there isn't a lot of explanation regarding why it is formulated the way it is:

Coolidge, Calvin. [1920?] "Equal Rights" (speech). Copy of 78 rpm disc in RealAudio and WAV formats from the Library of Congress,
     "American Leaders Speak: Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election, 1918-1920."

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