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Citation guides -- Chicago

Sound recordings

Footnotes / endnotes for sound recordings


Supplemented by information in sections 8.188-192, section 14.276 of the Manual list the elements of an audiovisual citation:

  •  The name of the composer, writer, or director.
  • The name(s) of the interviewer(s) if the recording is of an interview
  •  If needed, the title of a song, placed in "quotation marks."
  •  The title of the work as a whole (such as an album title) put in italics.  For TV programs, list the season and episode number.  Opus numbers in musical works are abbreviated as op., and are not italicized.
  • The name of the conductor, performer, director, or other content creator.  If, for example, the conductor or performer is of note alongside the composer when citing a music recording, both can be listed.
  • The air date for a radio program
  •  The city where the publisher is based
  •  The name of the recording company or publisher
  •  An identifying number associated with the work, if there is any
  •  The copyright and/or production date.  For re-released materials, such as a digital remastering of an analog recording, you should include both the original release date as well as the copyright date of the re-release.  Use "n.d." of there is no date known.
  •  The medium of the recording -- CD, cassette, 33 1/3 RPM, etc.


Bibliography for sound recordings

Citations in a bibliography are formulated in a 
similar way to a footnote or endnote, but do have slight variations from the way a footnote or endnote is formulated.

Reference list for sound recordings

Sections 14.274, 14.276, and 15.33 of the Manual offer information on citing an online sound recording, but their guidance is minimal.  Taken from section 15.33, the following example roughtly follows the same citation formulation for a book:

Pink Floyd. 1970. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc.

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