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Citation guides -- Chicago

The elements of a citation

Chapter 14 of the Chicago Manual of Style presents Chicago's bibliography style of citation.  This style, as described in section 14.2 of the Manual, "uses a system of notes, whether footnotes or endnotes or both, and usually a bibliography." (Sections 14.38 through 14.40 of the Manual present a discussion on when best to use footnotes vs. when best to use endnotes).

Footnotes and endnotes are formulated in exactly the same way -- the only difference is that footnotes appear on the bottom of the page on which a work is cited, whereas endnotes appear at the end of a manuscript.  Citations in a bibliography are formulated in a similar way to a footnote or endnote, but do have slight variations from the way a footnote or endnote is formulated.

Most courses that use Chicago's bibliography style ask you to cite sources using footnotes as opposed to endnotes.  All courses require a bibliography to accompany your notes.  Ask your instructor if you have further questions about the elements of the Chicago style s/he wants you to use in completing your coursework.

Chapter 15 of the Chicago Manual of Style presents Chicago's author-date style of citation.  This style, as described in section 15.1 of the Manual, "uses parenthetical author-date references, and a corresponding reference list."  In practice, the parenthetical author-date references are presented in the text of your paper like this:

Henry I was largely responsible for ending the arbitrariness of forest law under William II.  At his coronation, he supposedly promised to, “abolish all the evil customs by which the kingdom of England has been unjustly oppressed,” and replace it with much less inconsistent legislation (Douglass & Greenaway 1953, 400-402; Young 1979, 11).

The two sources referenced in this passage are then put in a reference list (also called a works cited list) list like this:

Douglass, David C., and George W. Greenaway, eds. 1953. English Historical Documents,1042-1189. London, U.K.: Eyre and Spottiswoode.

Young, Charles R. 1979. The Royal Forests of Medieval England  Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

The tabs you see at the top of ths screen will offer guidance and provide examples of citing books, print articles, database articles, Internet resources, encyclopedias, and DVDs or videos in Chicago's author-date style.  Ask your instructor if you have further questions about the elements of the Chicago style s/he wants you to use in completing your coursework.

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