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Citation Resources

Citation management software can help you manage your references when writing your paper. Wichita State Students have access to EndNote, a citation management system provided by WSU. Zotero is a free citation management software. Check out the library guides listed below for more information about how to use each.

You might also find the WSU ITS Applications Training blog helpful. Checkout this entry about creating in-text citations in MS word.

These are sites that will help you "build" citations. They're pretty accurate, but be sure to cover your bases by comparing the citations against those in a style manual. Just choose your citation style (APA, MLA, etc.) and the type of source you need to create a citation for (a book, a journal article, etc.), and input all of the necessary information.

Ask a librarian if you need additional assistance. 

Citing Sources in the IEEE Citation Style

For in-text citations in IEEE, provide the number, in square brackets, that refers to the reference list/bibliography at the end of the paper. The detailed citations in the reference list/bibliography at the end of the paper are in numerical sequence corresponding to the order that they appear in the paper. Once a source has been cited, use the same number in all subsequent in-text references.

Page numbers are added, if your source has page numbers, to the reference in the reference list when quoting or when referring to a specific detail. Square brackets are placed after the quotation marks and before the punctuation.

If you are referring to several references, include each numbered reference, separated by commas, when not sequential [3,6,7] and ranges, separated by a dash, where applicable [12-14].



According to Ashby [1], the physical world is easier to understand intuitively than the electrical world.


Short quotations

For quotes (exact word for word copy) that are less than three lines, enclose the quotation in double quotation marks (" ").

Ashby believes that, “The typical person understands the physical world more intuitively than he understands the electrical one” [1].


Long quotations

For quotations that are three lines or longer, use an indented block quotation without the quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five to seven spaces from the left margin.

Hunter notes that:

The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (UNOOSA) is an international agreement brokered by the United Nations that came into force in 1976. It provides that the launching state should furnish to the United Nations, as soon as practicable, detailed information on certain launches into outer space [2].

Adapted from the British Columbia Institute of Technology's IEEE Style Guide by Lin Brander.

The numbered reference list should be placed at the end of the paper. The list is arranged in the order that the references appear in the text. Citations are single spaced with no line space between citations.

General guidelines:

Abbreviations are frequently used. See the IEEE Abreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines document for a list of IEEE publications abbreviations and page 40 of IEEE Editorial Style Manual for common abbreviations of words in references.

Numbers appear in square brackets in a column flush left.

Authors are listed by initials followed by last name (eg. A. G. Harvey). List up to three authors (eg. T. Coolage, F. R. Hodan, and R. J. Wong). For more than three authors, use the first author's name followed by et al. (eg. L. D. Chan et al.)

Editors follow similar rules to authors, with the addition of Ed. for one editor and Eds. for more than one and et al., Eds. for more than three (eg. N. Waterman, Ed. OR P. North and X. Twilling, Eds. OR K. Singh et al., Eds.)

Titles of articles, chapters, conference papers, patents etc. are in quotation marks (eg. "Networked system state estimation in smart grid over cognitive radio infrastructures,"). Titles of books or journals are in italics (eg. International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics,) Note the pattern for upper case letters in the two different types of titles.

DOI (digital object identifyer) is a unique set of characters used to identify things such as electronic documents. It acts in a similar wasy to an ISBN number for books. The International DOI Foundation manages services and registration. If there is a DOI identifyer provided for the item you are citing, add it at the end of the availability statement; for example: [Online]. Available: CRCnetBase, doi: 10.1201/b11897-5

Accessed statement should be added only when citing a resource that is subject to change, such as a web site. For example:  [Website]. Available:[Accessed: Sept. 15, 2014]. If the item is a stable document that is unlikely to be revised, such as a report or a pdf, even if you find it on a website, you do not need to add the access date.

Web addresses should contain no puncuation at the end of the url.

Adapted from the British Columbia Institute of Technology's IEEE Style Guide by Lin Brander.


[1]  A. Rezi and M. Allam, "Techniques in array processing by means of transformations, " in Control and Dynamic Systems, Vol. 69,  Multidemsional Systems, C. T. Leondes, Ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1995, pp. 133-180.
[2]  G. O. Young, "Synthetic structure of industrial plastics," in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.
[3]  S. M. Hemmington, Soft Science. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Press, 1997.
[4]  N. Osifchin and G. Vau, "Power considerations for the modernization of telecommunications in Central and Eastern European and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU) countries," in Second International Telecommunications Energy Special Conference, 1997, pp. 9-16.
[5]  D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
[6] O. B. R. Strimpel, "Computer graphics," in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 8th ed., Vol. 4. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997, pp. 279-283.
[7]  K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management, 3rd ed. Boston: Course Technology, 2004.
[8]  M. N. DeMers, Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley, 2005.
[9]  L. Vertelney, M. Arent, and H. Lieberman, "Two disciplines in search of an interface: Reflections on a design problem," in The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design, B. Laurel, Ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1990. Reprinted in Human-Computer Interaction (ICT 235) Readings and Lecture Notes, Vol. 1. Murdoch: Murdoch University, 2005, pp. 32-37.
[10]  E. P. Wigner, "Theory of traveling wave optical laser," Physical Review, vol.134, pp. A635-A646, Dec. 1965.
[11]  J. U. Duncombe, "Infrared navigation - Part I: An assessment of feasibility," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 34-39, Jan. 1959.
[12]  M. Bell, et al., Universities Online: A survey of online education and services in Australia, Occasional Paper Series 02-A. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training, 2002.
[13]  T. J. van Weert and R. K. Munro, Eds., Informatics and the Digital Society: Social, ethical and cognitive issues: IFIP TC3/WG3.1&3.2 Open Conference on Social, Ethical and Cognitive Issues of Informatics and ICT, July 22-26, 2002, Dortmund, Germany. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2003.
[14]  I. S. Qamber, "Flow graph development method," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1387-1395, Dec. 1993.
[15]  Australia. Attorney-Generals Department. Digital Agenda Review, 4 Vols. Canberra: Attorney- General's Department, 2003.
[16]  C. Rogers, Writer and Director, Grrls in IT. [Videorecording]. Bendigo, Vic.: Video Education Australasia, 1999.
[17]  L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman. Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [E-book] Available: Safari e-book.
[18]  D. Ince, "Acoustic coupler," in A Dictionary of the Internet. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. [Online]. Available: Oxford Reference Online, [Accessed: May 24, 2005].
[19]  H. K. Edwards and V. Sridhar, "Analysis of software requirements engineering exercises in a global virtual team setup," Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 21+, April-June 2005. [Online]. Available: Academic OneFile, [Accessed May 31, 2005].
[20]  P. H. C. Eilers and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing scatterplots with smoothed densities," Bioinformatics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].
[21]  A. Holub, "Is software engineering an oxymoron?" Software Development Times, p. 28+, March 2005. [Online]. Available: ProQuest, [Accessed May 23, 2005].
[22]  H. Zhang, "Delay-insensitive networks," M.S. thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 1997.
[23]  “AlphaCom Communications introduces VMSK technology,” The Business Journal Online, May, 2000. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: May 2, 2000].
[24]  J. Riley, "Call for new look at skilled migrants," The Australian, p. 35, May 31, 2005. Available: Factiva, [Accessed May 31, 2005].
[25]  European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI TR-101-190, 1997. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Aug. 17, 1998].
[26]  J. Geralds, "Sega Ends Production of Dreamcast,", para. 2, Jan. 31, 2001. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 12, 2004].
[27]  W. D. Scott & Co, Information Technology in Australia: Capacities and opportunities: A report to the Department of Science and Technology. [Microform]. W. D. Scott & Company Pty. Ltd. in association with Arthur D. Little Inc. Canberra: Department of Science and Technology, 1984.
[28]  “A ‘layman’s’ explanation of Ultra Narrow Band technology,” Oct. 3, 2003. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Dec. 3, 2003].

 Adapted from the British Columbia Institute of Technology's IEEE Style Guide by Lin Brander, and Murdock University's IEEE Style guide.

Reference List IEEE Citation Examples

One Author

[1] D. Thorpe, Energy Management in Buildings: The Earthscan Expert Guide. New York, NY: Routledge, 2014.

Two Authors

[2] C. A. Gross and T. A. Roppel, Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012.

Three Authors

[3] J. Balfour, M. Shaw, and S. Jarosek, Introduction to Photovoltaics. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlette Learning, 2013.

More than Three Authors

[4] F. Voehl et al., The Lean Six Signma Handbook: Tools and Methods for Process Acceleration. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014.


[5] J. D. Gibson, Ed., Mobile Communications Handbook, 3rd ed. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis, 2013.

Two Editors

[6] J. Hoff and A. Kolff, Eds., Hydraulic Fill Manual for Dredging and Reclamation Works. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012. [Online]. Available: CRCnetBase.

Book Chapter

[7] T. Erseghe, S. Tomasin, and P. Tenti, "Efficient Management of Locally Generated Powers in Microgrids," in Communication and Networking in Smart Grids, Y. Xiao, Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012. [Online]. Available: CRCnetBase, doi: 10.1201/b11897-5


[8] J. McNerney and M. Cheek, Clean Energy Nation: Freeing America From the Tyrany of Fossil Fuels. New York, NY: Amacom, 2012. [Online]. Available: Books 24x7.


[9] P. Morreale and K. Terplan, Eds., CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL, 2009. [Online]. Available: CRCnetBASE.

***All boxes adapted from the British Columbia Institute of Technology's IEEE Style Guide by Lin Brander.

EJournal Article


[10] M. Rueter, S. Tenbohlen, and W. Kohler, "The influence of network impedance on conducted disturbances within the high-voltage traction harness of electric vehicles," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 35-43, Feb. 2014. [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore, doi: 10.1109/TEMC.2013.2273564

Print Journal Article

[11] E. Chan, Z. Huang, and G. Xu, "Position control: build a microcontroller-based stablilization platform," Circuit Cellar, no. 290, pp. 32-39, Sept. 2014.  


Entire Website [12] The Engineering Institute of Canada. [Website]. [Accessed: Oct. 16, 2014].
Information from Website [13] National Cancer Institute, "Cell phones and cancer risk," June 24, 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Oct. 22, 2014].
Report from website [14] R. L. Evans and T. Bryant, " Greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian oil and gas sector," Trottier Energy Futures Project, 2013. [Online]. Available:
Blog post [15] E. Ackerman, "Tiny 3D printed robots make teleoperation cheap and simple," IEEE Spectrum. Oct. 2, 2014. [Blog]. Available: [Accessed: Oct. 21, 2014].
Tweet [16] C. Gammell, "How appropriate. RT : Today is World Standards Day. Except in the US, which celebrates it on the 23rd." Oct. 14, 2014. [Tweet]. Available: [Accessed: Oct. 21, 2014].
Conference Paper in Print [17] R. Becker, "Summer thermal and energy performance of buildings with internal phase change materials," in Proceedings of the 5th International Building Physics Conf.," Kyoto, Japan, 2012, p. 63.




Conference Paper online [18]  A. Datta, P. Mohanty, and M. Gujar, "Accelerated deployment of Smart Grid technologies in India - present scenario, challenges and way forward," in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conf., Washington, DC, 2014, pp. 1-5. [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore, doi:10.1109/SE4SG.2012.6225717 

Streaming Video

[19] Understanding Electricity (Documentary). [Online]. Available: 

Streaming Video from Database

[20] Electrical Circuits: Ohm's Law. Crown Point, IN: Beneficial Book & Video, 2006. [Online]. Available: Films on Demand.


[21] R. Uth, Director, Tesla: Master of Lightning. Washington, DC: New Voyage Communications, 2007. [DVD].


[22] "Lighthouse 3000 watt electric bulb." London, UK: National Maritime Museum, circa 1970. [Image]. Available:


[23] C. Gammell and D. Jones, "#217 - Edifying Edison's energy," The Amp Hour Electronics Podcast. Sept. 22, 2014. [Podcast] Available:


Personal Correspondence

[24] H. Ayasso, private communication, Oct., 2014.


[25] P. Nygen, private communication, Sept., 2014. [Email].
Web Page [26] British Columbia. Ministry of Energy and Mines, “Electricity in British Columbia.” Victoria, BC. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: October 15, 2014].
Government Publication [27] British Columbia. Ministry of Energy, The BC Energy Plan: A Vision for Clean Energy Leadership. Victoria, BC, 2007. [Online]. Available:
Entire Web Site [28] National Energy Board. Calgary, AB. [Website]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 15, 2014].
Annual Report [29] BC Hydro, Annual Report 2014. Vancouver, BC. [Online]. Available:
Patent [30] A. Nirwan and L. Chun-Hao, "Decentralized controls and communications for autonomous distribution networks in smart grid," U.S. Patent US2014249688(A1), Sept. 4, 2014. [Online]. Available:
Filed Patent Application [31] V. M. Nebusov, F. Ordubadi Fariborz, and L. R. Ruben, "Photovoltaic module string arrangement and shading protection therefor," Canadian Patent Appl. CA 2763065, Nov. 11, 2011. [Online]. Available:

Newspaper Article in Print

[32] S. Ubelacker, "Implant imparts a second chance to see," The Globe and Mail, p. L5, Oct. 16, 2014.

Newspaper Article from the Internet

[33] E. Steel, "CBS offers web service as TV unbundles itself," The New York Times, Oct. 16, 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Oct. 16, 2014].

Newspaper Article from a Full Text Database

[34] J. Nagel, "Use of B.C.'s electric car charging stations doubles in past year," The Leader, Oct. 8, 2014. [Online]. Available: Canadian Newsstand.
Newspaper article with no Author [35] "TD Bank unit settles over data breach," National Post, p. FP4, Oct. 16, 2014.

Statistics from a Website

[36] BCStats, "Quick facts about BC," 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Oct., 22, 2014].

Statistics from a Database

[37] Geographic Research Inc., "Adjusted census data 2011: Vancouver, # total number of private households by household size." [Online]. Available: Simply Map.

Standard Online

[38] IEEE Standard Test Methods for Surge Protectors Used in Low-Voltage Data, Communications, and Signaling Circuits, IEEE Standard C62.36-2014. [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore.
Standard in Print [39] Standard Terminology Relating to Uninsulated Metalic Electrical Conductors, ASTM Standard B354-12, 2013

Dissertation (Ph.D.)

[40] F. C. Huang, "A computational light field display for correcting visual aberrations," Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Computer Science, U. California, Berkely, CA, 2013. [Online]. Available:



Thesis (M.S.)

[41] R. Lin, "Sound living in Vancouver's laneway housing," M.S. thesis, School of Construction and the Environment, BCIT, Burnaby, BC, 2014. [Online]. Available:
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