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Citing sources -- APA

In-text citations

Within the text of the paper, you acknowledge the use of another author's material by using parenthetical or narrative references.  These references should give enough information to enable the reader to find the full citation in the List of References at the end of the paper.  The full citation for each parenthetical or narrative reference must be documented in the List of References.

When citing a chapter in a book, note the author of the chapter (not of the book) and year of publication in the text of your paper.  Follow the book chapter example under the books tab above when including the chapter in the references list at the end of your paper.


Parenthetical citation (no page number):

In a recent study of reaction times (Cassell & Jenkins, 2000). . .

Narrative citation (no page number):
Cassell and Jenkins (2000) compared reaction times. . .

Parenthetical citation (page number):
The argument runs that, “The term 'Czechoslovak' had become a rich source of contention almost immediately after the state's formation,” (Innes, 2001, p. 16).

Narrative citation (page number):
According to Cuno (2008), “For years, archaeologists have lobbied for national and international laws, treaties, and conventions to prohibit the international movement of antiquities” (p. 1).

Book, no known author:

The reach of Japanese oil painting traditions extends all the way into contemporary Japanese pop art (Modern Oil Painting of Japan, 2003).

  • Use an abbreviated version of the title of the page IN italics and NOT IN quotation marks to substitute for the name of the author

Article, no known author:
A similar study was done of students learning to format a research paper ("Using APA." 2001).

  • Use an abbreviated version of the title of the page IN quotation marks and NOT IN italics to substitute for the name of the author

No known author or date:
In another study of students and research decision, it was discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

  • Use the title or first few words from the title and the abbreviation n.d. ("no date")


Based upon the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition, sections 8.11, 8.14, and 9.17.

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