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Citing sources -- APA


Book citations in your list of references generally use the following structure:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2009).  Title of book: Subtitle of book. Name of publisher. DOI or URL, if one exists

  1. The author should be the first element. If no author is present, use the editor name and write (Ed.). after it. If there are multiple editors, write their names followed by (Eds.).  If no author or editor is present, start with book title.
  2. List author's last name, followed by a comma then initials for first and middle name. Do not spell out author's first or middle name. Put a space between each initial if the author has two or more of them.
  3. Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work
  4. The date is always the second element and is contained in parentheses
  5. Book titles should be in italics
  6. Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle for titles of books or book chapters
  7. Each element (author, date, title, etc.) of a citation is separated by a period and one space


Book, one author:
Berry, W. (1981). The Gift of good land. NorthPoint.

Book, two or more authors:
Winston, B. L., Reinhart, M. L., Sacker, J. R., Gottlieb, W., Oscar, B., & Harris, D.P. (1980). Nepal in crisis: Growth and
     stagnation at the periphery
. Oxford University Press.

Book, no author:
World development report. (1989). Oxford University Press.

Book, with editor:
Del Castillo, A. R. (Ed.). (1990). Between borders: Essays on Mexicana/Chicana history. Floricanto.

  • When listing the editor of a book, write (Ed.).  Include the second period after the closed parenthesis.

Chapter in a book:
Gonzalez, R. (1987). Distinctions in western women's experience: Ethnicity, class, and social change. In S. Armitage
     (Ed.), The Women's west (pp. 237-252). University of Oklahoma.

  • When citing a chapter in a book, note the author of the chapter, year of publication, and chapter title first.  Then write In [book editor's name] (Ed.), Title of book (page numbers).
  • When listing the editor, list the first initial followed by the last name.  If the book has multiple editors, list each one and write (Eds.)  Finish the citation with the name of the publisher.
  • Unlike the "book, with editor" example above, when listing an editor in the middle of a chapter citation, write (Ed.), without the second period.

Book, with the author as the publisher:
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed).

  • When the author and publisher are the same person or group, do not repeat the person or group's name as the publisher.

Electronic version of a print book:
Shotton, M.A. (1989) Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency . Retrieved from

Electronic version of a print book with a DOI:
Schiraldi, G.R. (2001). The post-traumautic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth.
      McGraw-Hill Education. doi:10.1036/0071393722


Based upon the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition, section 10.02 and 10.03.

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