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Citing sources -- APA


Article citations in your list of references generally use the following structure:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2009). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Name of journal, volume number(issue
     number), page numbers. DOI

  • Each element (author, date, title, etc.) of a citation is separated by a period and one space
  • The author(s) should be the first element. If no author is present, start with the article title.
  • List author's last name, followed by a comma then initials for first and middle name, including the periods after each initial and the space in between them. Do not spell out author's first or middle name.
  • Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work
  • For a journal article with 21 or more authors, list the first 21 authors and then include an elipsis (three periods, like this: ...)  Following the elipsis, list the last author.  Do not include a "&" before the last author's name.
  • The date is always the second element and is contained in parentheses.  Dates are written (Year, month, day) -- for example, (2009, August 27).
  • Article titles are plain text. No quotes or italics.  Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle for article titles, except for proper names -- these are capitalized like normal.
  • Journal titles should be in italics.  Capitalize the first letter of each word in a periodical title except articles (a, an, the).
  • If a journal has both a volume and an issue number, write the volume number followed by the issue number in parenthesis. There is no space between the volume number and the open parenthesis.  Volume numbers of periodicals should be in italics.
  • DOIs should be used in place of Web addresses when available.  Do not put a period at the end of a DOI (it can prevent a hyperlinked DOI from pointing to a document's location on the Web).
  • If an article with no DOI but with the rest of bibliographic information (authors, title, volume, issue, and page numbers) is retrieved from a database, do NOT list the database name or database URL.  The bibliographic information is sufficient to locate the article. 
  • If an element is not present in the article's bibliographic information (for example no DOI or web address, no issue number in a journal with continuous pagination), omit it from the citation.

Journal article, single author, from a journal with continuous pagination, with a DOI:

Yuksel, I. (2015). The role of renewables in meeting Turkey's energy demand. Energy Sources Part A: Recovery,

     Utilization & Environmental Effects31, 1915-1925. doi:10.1080/15567030802462911

Journal article, 2-20 authors, from a journal with separate pagination, without a DOI:

Ballard, S. D., March, G., & Sand, J. K. (2015). Creation of a research community in a K-12 school research and evidence

     based practice. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 4(2), 8-36. Retrieved from

Journal article, 21 or more authors:
Guyatt, G., Cairns, J., Churchill, D., Cook, D., Haynes, R. B. Hirsh, J., Irvine, J., Levine, M., Levine, M., Nishikawa, J., Sackett, D., Brill-
     Edwards, P., Gerstein, H., Gibson, J.,Jaeschke, R., Kerigan, A., Neville, A., Panju, A., Detsky, A., Enkin, M., Frid, P... Tugwell, P.
     (1992). Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Approach to Teaching the Practice of Medicine. JAMA, 268(17), 2420-2425.

Magazine article, with publication months, continuous pagination:
Ferguson, S. (1990, September/October). America's frustration with the homeless. Utne Reader, 41, 50-55.

Newspaper article, with publication month and day:
Lohr, S. (2004, December 3). Health care technology is a promise unfinanced. The New York Times, p. C5.

Newspaper article, no author:
Environmental audits being considered by EC. (1991, February 11). Wall Street Journal, p. A8.


Based upon the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition, section 10.01., and the College of St. Scholastica.

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