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IME 777 - Graduate Research Seminar

In-text Citations

For in-text citations in IEEE, provide the number, in square brackets, that refers to the reference list/bibliography at the end of the paper. The detailed citations in the reference list/bibliography at the end of the paper are in numerical sequence corresponding to the order that they appear in the paper. Once a source has been cited, use the same number in all subsequent in-text references.

Page numbers are added, if your source has page numbers, to the reference in the reference list when quoting or when referring to a specific detail. Square brackets are placed after the quotation marks and before the punctuation.

If you are referring to several references, include each numbered reference, separated by commas, when not sequential [3,6,7] and ranges, separated by a dash, where applicable [12-14].



According to Ashby [1], the physical world is easier to understand intuitively than the electrical world.


Short quotations

For quotes (exact word for word copy) that are less than three lines, enclose the quotation in double quotation marks (" ").

Ashby believes that, “The typical person understands the physical world more intuitively than he understands the electrical one” [1].


Long quotations

For quotations that are three lines or longer, use an indented block quotation without the quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five to seven spaces from the left margin.

Hunter notes that:

The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (UNOOSA) is an international agreement brokered by the United Nations that came into force in 1976. It provides that the launching state should furnish to the United Nations, as soon as practicable, detailed information on certain launches into outer space [2].

Adapted from the British Columbia Institute of Technology's IEEE Style Guide by Lin Brander.

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