Skip to Main Content

PHS 325: Intro to Epidemiology

Critically evaluating articles & other sources

Students studying

verkeorg. (2016, Feb 19). University Students Studying, From Above. Retrieved from Used under the Creative Commons License.

How best to critically evaluate sources, either found through library resources or found somewhere else, is one of the most common questions students pose.  And it's not easy.  Engaging in such an evaluation asks a person to think critically about multiple nuanced questions and issues pertaining to any source of information.  Is this information biased in some way?  How can I tell?  Is there a clear way to investigate a source for signs of bias?  Regardless of bias, is the information presented in the source content legitimate?  How do I determine that (and what do I mean by "legitimate")?  Also, is the information relevant to the question I'm trying to answer?  Is it current (and if it's older information, is that an issue)?

Below you will find a boxe dedicated to the SIFT method, which is a process in which you can engage to assess the authority / quality / validity / etc. of a source of information in relation to your information needs.

The SIFT method

SIFT was developed by Michael Caulfield at Washington State University in Vancouver, Washington.  To learn about SIFT in more detail, check out this free three hour online minicourse (not affiliated with WSU).

Creative Commons License

The SIFT method is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The first move is the simplest. STOP reminds you of two things.

First, when you first hit a page or post and start to read it — STOP. Ask yourself whether you know the website or source of the information, and what the reputation of both the claim and the website is. If you don’t have that information, use the other moves to get a sense of what you’re looking at. Don’t read it or share media until you know what it is.

Second, after you begin to use the other moves it can be easy to go down a rabbit hole, going off on tangents only distantly related to your original task. If you feel yourself getting overwhelmed in your fact-checking efforts, STOP and take a second to remember your purpose. If you just want to repost, read an interesting story, or get a high-level explanation of a concept, it’s probably good enough to find out whether the publication is reputable. If you are doing deep research of your own, you may want to chase down individual claims in a newspaper article and independently verify them.

Please keep in mind that both sorts of investigations are equally useful. Quick and shallow investigations will form most of what we do on the web. We get quicker with the simple stuff in part so we can spend more time on the stuff that matters to us. But in either case, stopping periodically and reevaluating our reaction or search strategy is key.

The idea here is that you want to know what you’re reading before you read it.

Now, you don’t have to do a Pulitzer prize-winning investigation into a source before you engage with it. But if you’re reading a piece on economics by a Nobel prize-winning economist, you should know that before you read it. Conversely, if you’re watching a video on the many benefits of milk consumption that was put out by the dairy industry, you want to know that as well.

This doesn’t mean the Nobel economist will always be right and that the dairy industry can’t be trusted. But knowing the expertise and agenda of the source is crucial to your interpretation of what they say. Taking sixty seconds to figure out where media is from before reading will help you decide if it is worth your time, and if it is, help you to better understand its significance and trustworthiness.

Sometimes you don’t care about the particular article or video that reaches you. You care about the claim the article is making. You want to know if it is true or false. You want to know if it represents a consensus viewpoint, or if it is the subject of much disagreement.

In this case, your best strategy may be to ignore the source that reached you, and look for trusted reporting or analysis on the claim. If you get an article that says koalas have just been declared extinct from the Save the Koalas Foundation, your best bet might not be to investigate the source, but to go out and find the best source you can on this topic, or, just as importantly, to scan multiple sources and see what the expert consensus seems to be. In these cases we encourage you to “find other coverage” that better suits your needs — more trusted, more in-depth, or maybe just more varied.

Do you have to agree with the consensus once you find it? Absolutely not! But understanding the context and history of a claim will help you better evaluate it and form a starting point for future investigation.

Much of what we find on the internet has been stripped of context. Maybe there’s a video of a fight between two people with Person A as the aggressor. But what happened before that? What was clipped out of the video and what stayed in? Maybe there’s a picture that seems real but the caption could be misleading. Maybe a claim is made about a new medical treatment based on a research finding — but you’re not certain if the cited research paper really said that.

In these cases we’ll have you trace the claim, quote, or media back to the source, so you can see it in it’s original context and get a sense if the version you saw was accurately presented.

The (modified) CRAAP Test

Developed at California State University, Chico, The CRAAP Test is a set of critical thinking questions to determine if the information you have is reliable.  Here, the WSU librarians have modified the Test slightly from its original form.  For example, the original test placed the question below at the end of the accuracy section.  It is, in fact, worth highlighting as the ultimate question you ask of any source you consider using:

Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper
(that you then turn in to your instructor for a grade)?

Please keep in mind that the following list is not static or complete.  Different criteria will be more or less important depending upon your situation or need.

Adapted from Blakeslee, Sarah (2004) "The CRAAP Test," LOEX Quarterly Vol. 31: Iss. 3, Article 4. Available at:

  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Has the information been revised or updated?
  • Is the information current or out-of date for your topic?
  • Are the links functional?
  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
  • Are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations given?
  • What are the author's qualifications to write on the topic?
  • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or e-mail address?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source?
  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Can you verify any of the information from other sources or from personal knowledge?
  • Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?

See also the WSU University Libraries' Finding Authoritative Information handout.

  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
  • What is the purpose of the information? to inform? teach? sell? entertain? persuade?
  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact? opinion? propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
  • Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion?  Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal biases that you can detect?
Wichita State University Libraries, 1845 Fairmount, Wichita, KS 67260-0068 | Phone: (316) 978-3481 | Comments/Suggestions | Facebook Instagram X YouTube Channel Federal Depository Library Program HathiTrust Digital Library Patent and Trademark Resources Centers