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Citing sources -- APA 6th Ed.

In-text citations

Within the text of the paper, you acknowledge the use of another author's material by using parenthetical references.  These references should give enough information to enable the reader to find the full citation in the List of References at the end of the paper.  The full citation for each parenthetical reference must be documented in the List of References.

When citing a chapter in a book, note the author of the chapter and year of publication in the text of your paper.  Follow the "Essay or article in a book" example under the books tab above when including the chapter in the references list at the end of your paper.


Author’s name in text (no page number):
Cassell and Jenkins (2000) compared reaction times. . .

Author’s name in reference (no page number):
In a recent study of reaction times (Cassell & Jenkins, 2000). . .

Author’s name in text (page number):
According to Cuno (2008), “For years, archaeologists have lobbied for national and international laws, treaties, and conventions to prohibit the international movement of antiquities” (p. 1).

Author’s name in reference (page number):
The argument runs that, “The term 'Czechoslovak' had become a rich source of contention almost immediately after the state's formation,” (Innes, 2001, p. 16).

No known author:
A similar study was done of students learning to format a research paper ("Using APA." 2001).

  • Use an abbreviated version of the title of the page in quotation marks to substitute for the name of the author

No known author or date:
In another study of students and research decision, it was discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d).

  • Use the first few words from the title and the abbreviation n.d. ("no date")


See Chapter 6 of the Publication Manual for additional details on formatting in-text citations.

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