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Citing sources -- APA 6th Ed.


Book citations in your list of references generally use the following structure:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2009).  Title of book: Subtitle of book. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

  1. The author should be the first element. If no author is present, use the editor name and write (Ed.). after it. If there are multiple editors, write their names followed by (Eds.).  If no editor is present, start with book title.
  2. List author's last name, followed by a comma then initials for first and middle name. Do not spell out author's first or middle name. Put a space between each initial if the author has two or more of them.
  3. Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work
  4. The date is always the second element and is contained in parentheses
  5. Book titles should be in italics
  6. Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle for titles of books or book chapters
  7. Each element (author, date, title, etc.) of a citation is separated by a period and one space


Book, one author:
Berry, W. (1981). The Gift of good land. San Francisco, CA: NorthPoint.

Book, two or more authors:
Winston, B. L., Reinhart, M. L., Sacker, J. R., Gottlieb, W., Oscar, B., & Harris, D.P. (1980). Nepal in crisis: Growth and
     stagnation at the periphery
. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

Book, no author:
World development report. (1989). New York, NY: Oxford UP.

Book, with editor:
Del Castillo, A. R. (Ed.). (1990). Between borders: Essays on Mexicana/Chicana history. Encino, CA: Floricanto.

  • When listing the editor of a book, write (Ed.).  Include the second period after the closed parenthesis.

Chapter in a book:
Gonzalez, R. (1987). Distinctions in western women's experience: Ethnicity, class, and social change. In S. Armitage
     (Ed.), The Women's west (pp. 237-252). Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma.

  • When citing a chapter in a book, note the author of the chapter and year of publication first.  Then write In Editor of book (Ed.), Title of book(page numbers).  When listing the editor, list the first initial followed by the last name.  If the book has multiple editors, list each one and write (Eds.)  Finish the citation with the place of publication and the name of the publisher.
  • Unlike the "book, with editor" example above, when listing an editor in the middle of a chapter citation, write (Ed.), without the second period.

Book, with the author as the publisher:
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed).
     Washington, DC: Author.

  • When the author and publisher are the same person or group, indicate that the publisher is the author by placing the word "Author" at the end of the citation, where the publisher is identified.

Electronic version of a print book:
Shotton, M.A. (1989) Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from

Electronic version of a print book with a DOI:
Schiraldi, G.R. (2001). The post-tramautic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth
      [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Electronic-only book:
O'Keefe, E. (n.d.) Egoism and the crisis of Western values. Retrieved from


Based upon the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, section 7.02.

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